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Method for producing ready-to-eat vegetarian meat from soybean protein isolate

instant vegetarian meat

Method for producing ready-to-eat vegetarian meat from soybean protein isolate

The method for producing instant vegetarian meat by using soybean protein isolate belongs to the field of food processing. It is realized through the process of quenching and tempering, extrusion texturing, cutting, cooling, packaging and so on. The beneficial effects are: (1) no exogenous ingredients are added. (2) The proportion of soybean protein isolate in the product can reach 50% to 83%. (3) Product color diversification. (4) The texture quality of the product can be obtained by changing the proportion of soluble soybean polysaccharide and insoluble soybean polysaccharide in the material. (5) Soluble soybean polysaccharide and insoluble soybean polysaccharide have different physiological activities, and the mixing of the two can play a nutritional complementary effect.

Technical field:

The invention belongs to the field of food processing, and relates to a method for producing instant vegetarian meat by using a screw extruder with soybean protein isolate as the main raw material.

Background technique:

There are many kinds of soy protein products in commercial form, which are mainly divided into soybean protein powder (protein content 50%~65%), soybean protein concentrate (protein content 65%~90%), soybean protein isolate (protein content greater than 90%). However, these soy protein products exist in powder state and need to be reprocessed or added as additives to other foods (such as meat products, flour products, etc.) before they can be eaten. An effective way of reprocessing is to restructure soybean protein through extrusion texturing technology, giving it a texture and taste similar to animal meat, which greatly increases its edible properties. Using soy protein as raw material, the non-puffed extrusion texturing process can be carried out in a high moisture state to produce vegetable protein ready-to-eat vegetarian meat products with very similar texture and structure to animal meat.

Research at home and abroad has confirmed that the raw materials that can be applied to the textured soy protein of the puffed type using low-humidity (material moisture≤45%) extrusion technology are very extensive, such as high-temperature defatted soybean meal, low-temperature defatted soybean meal, semi-defatted Soybean flour, cold-pressed soybean cake, hot-pressed soybean cake, full-fat soybean flour, acid-processed soybean protein concentrate, alcohol-processed soybean protein concentrate, soybean protein isolate (additional excipients are required), etc., all of which can produce puffed soybean tissue protein. The main use of puffed soybean protein is as an additive, adding it to ham, frozen noodles, instant food, etc. as a protein supplement, or using its functional properties of water retention and oil absorption to improve food quality.

However, when using the high-moisture extrusion method to produce non-puffed ready-to-eat soy-based meat products, due to the high pressure in the barrel, the existence of excessive free water, and the open structure at both ends of the barrel, it is easy to produce a The front blast, or the reverse flow backward. This requires strict selection of the raw materials used, coupled with optimized operating parameters and screw structure, in order to finally achieve effective extrusion texturing under high moisture conditions.

Low-temperature defatted soybean meal is considered to be a better raw material for high-humidity extrusion texturing. The domestic patent “A Method for Producing Texturized Vegetable Protein” discloses a high-moisture soybean tissue using low-temperature defatted soybean meal. protein method. However, the low-temperature defatted soybean meal contains oligosaccharides, isoflavones, phytic acid and other components that affect the taste of the product.

Research at home and abroad has consistently shown that high-purity soybean protein isolate cannot form a fibrous structure during extrusion texturing, but an isotropic thermal gel structure. It has been reported abroad that soybean protein isolate can be applied, in which other exogenous ingredients such as gluten and wheat starch need to be added, and after mixing, high-moisture TSP is processed again. Domestic patent “Soybean protein textured meat imitation product and preparation method thereof” (publication number: CN101473966A) discloses the method of applying soybean protein isolate, defatted soybean meal and gluten powder to produce high-moisture TSP. In this method, one is the addition of exogenous protein, and the other is that the proportion of isolated protein is also low, ranging from 20% to 60%, and the optimized value is 45%. Domestic patent “a kind of composition for preparing soybean imitation meat products” (patent number: ZL 03104919.2) discloses the method of preparing soybean imitation meat products by compounding using soybean protein isolate powder, soybean low-temperature soybean meal powder and wheat protein powder . This patent also has the problem of adding exogenous protein, and the proportion of soybean protein isolate is only 5-30wt%.

Soy protein is known as the vegetable protein with the most excellent nutritional value. The addition of exogenous protein or starch components will undoubtedly reduce the nutritional value of the product and dilute or disturb the inherent characteristic flavor of soy products.

Invention content:

The object of the present invention is to provide a method for producing instant vegetarian meat with soybean protein isolate, which uses soybean protein isolate as the main raw material, only adds a small amount of soybean endogenous chemical component – soybean polysaccharide, and does not add any other external sources. The invention discloses a chemical composition, a method for producing ready-to-eat soybean vegetarian meat, and a product thereof.

The method of the invention is as follows: taking soybean protein isolate as the main raw material, adding a certain proportion of water-soluble soybean polysaccharide and insoluble soybean polysaccharide therein, and going through the processes of raw material compounding, conditioning, extrusion, texturing, cutting, cooling, packaging and the like. process is realized.

The concrete steps of the method of the present invention are:

(1) Mixing soybean protein isolate with soluble soybean polysaccharide and insoluble soybean polysaccharide. The mixing method and mixing ratio include the following three situations:

a. Soy protein isolate is mixed with soluble soybean polysaccharide, and the mass percentage of each component is as follows

Soy protein isolate: 50% – 83%,

Soluble soybean polysaccharide: 17% – 50%.

Wherein, the preferred mixing ratio is:

Soy protein isolate: 70% — 80%,

Soluble soybean polysaccharide: 20% – 30%.

b. Soy protein isolate is mixed with insoluble soybean polysaccharide, and the percentage of each component is as follows:

Soy protein isolate: 50% – 83%,

Insoluble soybean polysaccharide: 17% – 50%.

Wherein, the preferred mixing ratio is:

Soy protein isolate: 55% – 70%,

Insoluble soybean polysaccharide: 30% – 45%.

c. Mix the soluble soybean polysaccharide with the insoluble soybean polysaccharide first, and then mix the soybean polysaccharide mixture with the soybean protein isolate. The percentage of each component is:

Both the soluble soybean polysaccharide and the insoluble soybean polysaccharide are mixed, and the soluble soybean polysaccharide accounts for the mass percentage of the mixture between 10% and 90%. The optimized ratio is 20%~50%.

Soy protein isolate and soybean polysaccharide compound are mixed twice,

Soy protein isolate: 50% – 83%,

Soybean Polysaccharide Blend: 17% – 50%.

Wherein, the preferred mixing ratio is:

Soy protein isolate: 60% – 70%,

Soybean polysaccharide mixture: 30% – 40%.

(2) Conditioning and tempering: mix and stir the mixed material with a certain quality of water in the conditioning machine, so that the material can fully absorb water, the moisture content of the material reaches 55% to 70%, and the optimized moisture content of the material is 60%-65% %. The conditioning step can be completed in the front section of the extruder barrel using an online water addition system.

A twin-screw extruder with a cooling die is used for extrusion texturing. Different temperature settings are used in each area of ​​the extruder barrel. According to the sequence from the feeding end to the product outlet end, the optimal temperature of each area is obtained after optimization. set in order

(3) The material and water mixing and conveying area is 75-85°C, the mixing and kneading area to form a uniform dough is 115-125°C, the melt forming area is 145-155°C, the melt is cooled stably, and the tissue state is formed The zone is 130-140°C, and the non-puff extrusion zone is 65-75°C.

(4) Cutting, cooling, packaging

The extrudate is cut into the desired shape using a cutting device, cooled and packaged to be the finished product.

The beneficial effects of the present invention are: 1) without adding any exogenous components, completely using the inherent components of soybean to achieve. 2) the proportion of soybean protein isolate in the product can reach 50%~83% (dry basis); 3) the product color is diversified. The color can be changed from dark cyan to golden yellow. The color of the product without soluble soybean protein is dark cyan. With the addition of soluble soybean protein, the color of the product gradually becomes brighter. This is because soluble soybean polysaccharide can undergo Maillard reaction with soybean protein, while insoluble soybean polysaccharide This reaction does not occur with soy protein. 4) The texture quality of the product can be obtained by changing the proportion of soluble soybean polysaccharide and insoluble soybean polysaccharide in the material. The product formed by mixing soybean protein and insoluble soybean polysaccharide has a smooth surface and little adhesion. With the increase in the proportion of soybean polysaccharide added, the surface tackiness and fibrosis degree of the product increased. 5) Soluble soybean polysaccharide and insoluble soybean polysaccharide have different physiological activities, and the mixing of the two can play a nutritionally complementary effect.

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