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Preservative: propionic acid and its sodium salt and calcium salt

food additives

1) Characteristics of propionic acid and propionate:

Propionic acid: It is a carboxylic acid with three carbons. Pure propionic acid is a colorless or slightly yellow oily liquid with a slightly pungent odor. The relative molecular mass is 74.08, the melting point is -22°C, and the boiling point is 140.7°C. Density 0.99, soluble in water, ethanol, ether, etc. Exposure to high concentrations can cause local damage to the skin and eye mucosa surfaces.

Sodium propionate: It is white crystals, granules or crystalline powder, odorless or with a slight acetic acid-butyric acid smell. It is stable to light and heat, has a melting point above 400°C, and deliquesces in humid air.

Easily soluble in water (100g at 15℃, 150g at 100℃), soluble in ethanol (4.4g at 15℃, 8.4g at 100℃), slightly soluble in acetone (0.05g at 15℃), composed of propionic acid and carbonic acid Obtained from the reaction of sodium.

The pH value of 10% sodium propionate aqueous solution is 8.49. Add the same amount of dilute sulfuric acid to the 10% sodium propionate aqueous solution. After heating, propionic acid odor gas will be generated.

Calcium propionate: is the calcium salt of propionic acid. White crystals, granules or crystalline powder, odorless or with a slight propionic acid smell. Stable to light and heat, hygroscopic, solubility in 100g of water is: 20°C, 39.85g; 50°C, 38.25g; 100°C, 48.44g.

Slightly soluble in ethanol and methanol, almost insoluble in acetone and benzene. Calcium propionate can be synthesized directly from calcium oxide. Add the same amount of dilute sulfuric acid to a 10% calcium propionate aqueous solution. After heating, propionic acid odorous gas will be produced. Calcium propionate is alkaline, and its 10% aqueous solution has a pH value of 8-10.

2) Anti-corrosion performance:

The active ingredient of propionic acid and its salts is propionic acid, which must be in an acidic environment to produce antibacterial effects. The minimum concentration is 0.01% when the pH value is 5.0, and 0.5% when the pH value is 6.5. In acidic media, it has a strong inhibitory effect on various types of molds, Bacillus pruritus or Gram-negative bacilli. It is particularly effective in preventing the production of aflatoxin, but is almost ineffective against yeast.

Its anti-corrosion principle is:

1) Monomeric propionic acid molecules can form high osmotic pressure outside the mold cells, dehydrating the mold cells and losing their reproductive capacity.

2) The active molecule of propionic acid can penetrate the cell wall of molds and other bacteria, inhibit the enzyme activity in the cells, hinder the synthesis of β-alanine by microorganisms, and thus prevent the reproduction of molds.


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