About 4,000 years ago, the ancient Egyptians began to use Dry yeast to make wine and bread. During the Han Dynasty, China also learned to use yeast to make steamed buns.
In the long history of thousands of years of human consumption of bread, countless methods of making bread have been developed, and each country and region has its own national characteristics.
There are currently several types of bread:
Russian bread: Russian bread is also called Daleba, and Leba means bread (хлеб) in Russian.
Leba has a very long history. In the Russian countryside, there may be only one stove for the whole village to bake bread. People will bake a batch of bread regularly and store it for eating. Therefore, the bread used to be very large and sliced when eating.
German-style bread: German bread has a history of more than 800 years. The Germans’ favorite bread is brezel. Because most Germans like to drink beer and have the world’s advanced beer brewing technology, daily drinking The Germans invented a kind of bread soaked in alkaline water and then baked. The alkalinity of the bread neutralizes the acidity of beer, which is perfect with beer.
French bread: French bread may be one of the most familiar breads. The most classic is baguette. The French may be one of the countries that love bread the most in the world. The baguette practice is strictly regulated by French law. French law stipulates that baguette must be made of flour, yeast, and brine, without fat, weighing 250g and length of about 65cm.
Another most famous bread in France should be the croissant. The invention of the croissant was to celebrate the victory of the Battle of Vienna. The bakers made it into the shape of a horn.
Arabic bread: The most popular bread in Arabia is a bread called pita (pita), which is widely popular in Greece, Turkey, the Mediterranean and the Arabian Peninsula. It is made by steam expansion on a high-temperature stone slab. After baking, the middle will bulge and be used to fill various foods.
Italian bread: The more classic bread in Italy is ciabatta bread. The Italian pronunciation of ciabatta means slippers. In the last century, the popularity of sandwiches made of baguettes affected the business of Italian bakers. In order to commemorate this bread, it is named “ciabatta polesano” after the birthplace of this bread.
Table-top/Japanese-style bread: Table-top and Japanese-style bread have been the most popular breads in China in recent years, and the styles of the two types of bread are similar. For example, Taiwanese meat floss bread, coconut bread, red bean bread, pineapple bun, etc., Japanese-style matcha bread, klimt bread, and shredded buns. They are sold in domestic bakeries of all sizes. The bread technology of Taiwan and Japan can be said to be a rising star, and they are frequent visitors to the world champion of bread competition.
The above is only a small part, and the types of bread are far more than that. It is not an exaggeration to say that bread culture gave birth to European civilization.
The discovery of yeast has accelerated the evolution and diversity of bread. Let’s talk about several fermentation methods used to make bread.
Old face method:
When people first made bread, they found that if the remaining old dough was fermented and put into the new dough, the proofing of the bread would be better. Because of the addition of old flour, the bread would have a slightly sour taste after baking. This method is widely used in hard bread such as French European style.
Method: Keep a little bit of the remaining dough each time, seal it and put it in the refrigerator for next time.
Grape species/various fruit cultured yeast
Using natural yeast made from acidic fruits, the bread made is extremely moisturizing, and the bread smells lightly with a fruity flavor. Grape seed is a popular method of making bread in recent years, and many bakers will keep a jar of their own yeast.
Method: 500g washed raisins, 50g granulated sugar, 500g cold boiled water
Sterilize the glass jar with boiling water, put water, sugar, and raisins into the container and seal it. The room temperature is 28°C for about 7 days, and the water inside will gradually float upward with air bubbles.
On the eighth day, take 500g of yeast water in the jar, add 250g of high-gluten flour and 150g of whole wheat flour, and seal it for one day
On the ninth day, take all the old noodles above, add 250g high-gluten flour, 150g whole wheat flour, and 500g water, and seal it for one day
On the tenth day, repeat the action on the ninth day, and then it can be used one day later
The Polish seed originated in Poland. Now most bakeries in the world use a kind of bread starter. The French stick made with the Polish seed has a crisper skin and a softer, chewier interior.
Method: 100g high-gluten flour, 100g warm water, 2g dry yeast
Mix all the ingredients, put it at room temperature for about 8 hours or put it in the refrigerator for 24 hours before use. Polish seeds can be recycled after being cultivated. Take 200g of noodles, add 100g of high-gluten flour and 100g of water, and let them stand at room temperature for 10 hours before they can be used again. Use, it can be recycled infinitely, the older the noodles, the better the flavor.
Hot noodle method
Hot noodles are mostly used to make toast. The toast with hot noodles has a softer taste, and it is durable for storage and not easy to dry.
As the name implies, hot noodles is to use 70-100°C water to boil the starch of the flour to gelatinize it, and then add it to the dough when kneading the noodles.
Method: 200g boiling water, 180g high-gluten flour, 20g corn starch
Boil the water and pour it into the flour, stir it into a ball, let it cool and use it.
This method of making bread is mostly used in desktop Japanese-style bakeries. The advantage of the liquid seed method is to activate the activity of the yeast in advance, making the bread tissue richer and softer. The desktop Japanese-style bread is mostly sweet, and the liquid seed method can Just right to keep the bread soft for a long time.
Method: Take 20% of the flour in the formula, add warm water and yeast in a ratio of one to one, let it stand at room temperature for about 1-2 hours, then add the remaining ingredients and stir.