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Preventing Mold in High-Moisture Pastries

Pastry

Moldy pastry mainly refers to the proliferation of mold on the pastry, and fluffy spots of various colors can be observed from the outside. There are many types of mold groups that contaminate cakes, such as Penicillium, Aspergillus penicillium, Rhizopus, Aspergillus sperm and white mold. If the temperature of the storage place is high, condensation will form on the surface of the cake, and mold will easily grow, which is the reason to control the water activity of the product.

The moldy and sticky pastries are mainly caused by the contamination and reproduction of Potato bacterium. Because of the phenomenon of filamentous mucilage in cakes contaminated with this bacillus, the bacillus is often referred to as filamentous mucilage. Under normal circumstances, this microorganism is often parasitic in soil and grains, and its spores can withstand high temperatures of 140 °C.

Such spores are often contained in the raw materials of pastries, and the core temperature of the pastry is only approximately 100°C during baking, so it is impossible to kill all of them. will grow into bacteria. Generally, the optimum temperature for fungi that cause mildew in cakes is about 35 to 50 °C. When the temperature is below 16 °C, the growth rate of mold is very slow. Therefore, in the high temperature seasons of summer and autumn, it reproduces very quickly. In addition to the influence of condensation and temperature during storage, the cakes are prone to mildew; while in late autumn, winter and early spring, mildew is not easy to occur.

The growth of various fungi can decompose starch and protein, form mucus and discoloration, and promote the hydrolysis of fat, resulting in a special odor.

01 Mildew of pastries

The moldy deterioration of pastry has a lot to do with the production process, formula, environment, operation, packaging and storage conditions. First, cakes that are not fully baked are prone to mildew; secondly, cakes with unreasonable recipes are prone to mildew; secondly, cakes with too high water activity (such as AW>0.65) are prone to mildew; and the production environment cannot meet the requirements The cakes produced under the required conditions are prone to mildew.

In order to pursue production, some companies try to shorten the baking time as much as possible, which will inevitably lead to the fact that the high temperature of the cake batter in the central part is not long enough, and there are many residual microorganisms. In addition, the water activity of the products produced in this way is bound to be high. This kind of cake is the most Easy to mold and mildew deterioration. In the production practice, it was found that the products in this situation were all moldy three or four days after they were produced!

Sometimes, in order to match the production capacity, the output is increased, and the cooling time of the cakes is also rushed. The middle of the cakes is not completely cooled to room temperature before packaging and storage. It is to provide suitable temperature conditions for the growth of mold), which makes the pastry moldy and moldy quickly.

Improper recipe. It mainly refers to the unreasonable preservatives used in the formula. Although some companies use preservatives, the effect is still not good. There are at least three or four reasons. One is that the acidity of the product is not well adjusted. It is the peaceful coexistence of the production environment that the production process is not well controlled! In addition, when the production environment is laid out and installed, due to the lack of experience and ability of the design and installation personnel at that time, there are inherent hidden dangers.

Another detailed problem that cakes are prone to mildew is the difference between open hearth furnaces, converter furnaces and flint furnaces. This question is left for everyone to ponder.

Hygiene is not good. The countertops, racks and tools where the pastry was cooled were not clean and were piled up with old pastries. Cooling methods, methods, condensation and condensation, distance between oven and cooling, dynamic air purification, control of cleanliness of clean work area, cleaning and cleaning of air conditioners, ventilation and exhaust conditions, these all belong to the category of environmental control .

Production hygiene control is not good. Such as: personal hygiene control, packaging material hygiene control, cross-contamination control, work clothes hygiene control, space sterilization, environmental testing and verification, and protective gas purity control. These are all causes of mildew in pastries.

Poor storage and packaging conditions. Cakes stored in high temperature and humid places, unqualified packaging, poor oxygen barrier effect, and long storage time can cause mildew and deterioration.

02How to prevent the pastry from going mouldy

The first is that quality managers should conduct hazard analysis on the production process and process, and make advance plans for key control points. Secondly, pastry producers should produce in strict accordance with the production process and operating procedures, and control the limits of key control points, and control the microbial indicators within the standard requirements.

Then it is to adjust the formula to correct the unreasonable formula, mainly to adjust the ratio of sugar and oil, the acidity of the product and the synergistic use of preservatives.

The second is to pay attention to the sanitation of the workshop (if you are planning to build a new factory, you must find someone with experience and ability to do a good job in the layout and process design when designing the factory; if there are problems in the old factory, you must deal with the existing problems effectively. Change!). This is a very important point in making a good pastry shelf life!

What cannot be ignored is: the personal hygiene of operators and the cleaning and disinfection of equipment and utensils must be carefully done in the workshop environment before leaving get off work, and no slag should be left behind to prevent mold spores from floating around in the air. After the cake is out of the oven, it should be placed in a well-cooled and dry place for cooling as soon as possible, and it can be packaged when it is cooled to room temperature. Some manufacturers believe too much in the ultraviolet sterilization equipment that comes with the equipment. This view often leads them into a wrong path and cannot find a practical and effective method to control it. Those of us who are engaged in food production know that ultraviolet rays and ozone have their working conditions requirements during sterilization, and these requirements are generally unattainable. In other words, in terms of quality management, if the process capability fails to meet the requirements, SPC control cannot be carried out!

Finally, pay attention to food hygiene, keep it properly, and do not exceed the shelf life. Pastries should be sealed and packaged and stored in a cool, dry and ventilated place (if conditions permit, it is best to store them in an air-conditioned room at 5-15°C); in order to prolong the shelf life, anti-mold substances can be added when making pastries. For products that leave the factory in the high temperature season, it is necessary to strengthen the management of transportation and sales to strictly prevent secondary pollution.

In short, in order to make good pastry products, the first thing to solve is the problem of mildew. If this problem is not solved, everything else is nonsense! I have encountered many companies that are stumped by this problem, but they are unwilling to invest more in this area. Although they have been doing it for many years, they still have no improvement, and it is getting more and more difficult! However, looking for a formal so-called professional purification company to do it, because they are not clear about the characteristics of the pastry industry, and the fees are high, they often spend money, and the effect is not obvious. Although I am not a professional in purification, I am familiar with pastry production and can help manufacturers who need this to achieve better results with less investment.

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