Physicochemical properties and functions of water-soluble dietary fibers

Dietary fibers

Dietary fiber (DF) is generally considered to be a class of edible plant cell wall residues (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, etc.) and associated substances that cannot be digested by human digestive enzymes. composition of compounds. According to its solubility, it can be divided into two types: soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber.

Common water-soluble dietary fibers are: inulin, glucan, resistant starch, chitosan, oat beta-glucan, guar gum, sodium alginate, fungal polysaccharides, etc. Foods such as carrots, citrus, flax, oats, and oat bran are rich in soluble fiber.

In contrast, water-soluble dietary fiber has been widely used in food processing as a thickener, bulking agent, formulation aid and filler in recent years because of its good processing performance and better physiological function. The production and development of food and functional food, and water-based dietary fiber-related food have huge development space and broad market prospects.

1. High water retention and high expansion and function

There are many hydrophilic genes in the structure of water-soluble dietary fiber, which has strong water absorption, high water retention and high swelling. It can increase the volume of stool and the speed of defecation, reduce the pressure in the rectum and the urinary system, relieve the symptoms of urinary system diseases such as cystitis, bladder stones and kidney stones, and can quickly excrete toxins from the body, prevent constipation and prevent rectal cancer.

The high water retention and high expansion properties of dietary fiber delay gastric emptying, make the stomach feel full, reduce food intake, and help prevent obesity and lose weight.

2. Adsorption and boiling effect and function

There are many active genes on the surface of water-soluble dietary fiber, which can bind and adsorb organic molecules such as cholesterol and bile acids, inhibit the increase of total cholesterol concentration, reduce the synthesis and absorption of human cholesterol and salts, and reduce the cholesterol in human serum and liver. Can prevent coronary arteriosclerosis and prevent cardiovascular disease.

3. Fermentation and adjustment of gut microbiota function

Soluble dietary fiber can be fermented by beneficial bacteria in the large intestine into organic acids such as acetic acid and lactic acid, which can reduce intestinal pH, promote the growth of beneficial bacteria Bifidobacterium in the intestine, prevent intestinal mucosal atrophy, and maintain intestinal microbial balance and health. The organic acids produced by fermentation can speed up the peristalsis and digestion of food in the gastrointestinal tract, promote the excretion of feces, prevent the intestinal toxins from stimulating the intestinal wall and toxins to stay too long, and prevent colon cancer.

4. No energy filling and obesity prevention function

Soluble dietary fiber binds water (absorbs water) and becomes larger after expansion, which will play a filling role in the intestine, easily causing satiety. At the same time, dietary fiber will also affect the availability of carbohydrates and other components in the intestine. Absorption and digestion also make it difficult for people to feel hungry. Therefore, dietary fiber is very beneficial to prevent obesity.

5. Solubility and viscosity and their functions

Soluble dietary fiber is sticky and has a great influence on food viscosity. Due to the increase in viscosity, the contact between intestinal contents and intestinal mucosa is reduced, thereby delaying the absorption rate, making the blood sugar level of diabetics stable after eating, and promoting the excretion of insulin from the pancreas, which is beneficial to the supply and metabolism of sugar. Increasing dietary fiber in food can improve the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin, so as to regulate and control the blood sugar level of diabetics.

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