As an important food resource, starch is an important material in food production. However, natural starch has many shortcomings, such as unstable structure and poor solubility. Natural starch can no longer meet the needs of current food processing, which requires some technical means to change the physical and chemical properties of natural starch.
Modified starch refers to the use of physical, chemical or enzymatic methods to change the original properties of natural starch on the basis of natural starch. At present, more than 1,000 kinds of modified starch have been successfully developed, and the world’s average annual output is about 30 million tons. Different types of modified starch have huge differences in their properties. For example, acetate starch has low gelatinization temperature, high freeze-thaw stability, high paste transparency, and carboxymethyl starch has extremely high transparency and viscosity. According to its different properties, modified starch is widely used in food, pharmaceutical, paper and other industries.
Water holding capacity of different native and modified starches
Xu Hua et al. have shown that the water retention of potato starch, corn starch and tapioca starch is significantly improved after being processed into modified starch. Among them, potato hydroxypropyl starch has the highest water holding capacity, and potato hydroxypropyl starch has high swelling degree and high water holding capacity at low temperature;
In corn acetate starch, tapioca acetate starch, potato acetate starch, potato acetate starch has high water holding capacity, and the water holding capacity of corn and tapioca acetate starch is basically the same;
In cassava modified starch, the water holding capacity of cassava hydroxypropyl and cassava cross-linked hydroxypropyl starch is basically the same, while the water holding capacity of starch is improved after cassava acetate is cross-linked and esterified. Effectively reduce the water loss, drying and cracking phenomenon of the product after refrigeration.
Next, we summarize the specific applications of modified starch in various food development:
01 Modified starch compound addition pair
The improvement effect of potato instant noodles is obvious
The results of Liu Yuhuan et al. in the experiment of adding a single modified starch showed that by principal component analysis, when the addition ratio of acetate starch was 3%, hydroxypropyl starch, phosphate starch and octenyl succinate starch ester. The quality improvement effect of potato instant noodles was better when the addition ratio of 2%.
In the modified starch compound test, when the addition ratio of hydroxypropyl starch + acetate starch and hydroxypropyl starch + starch octenyl succinate was 1.5% + 1.5%, the standardized comprehensive scores were 1 and 0.697, respectively. 9 , the best effect on the quality improvement of potato instant noodles.
The final study concluded that the addition of modified starch has a significant effect on improving the quality of potato instant noodles through principal component analysis, and the improvement of potato instant noodles by compound addition of modified starch is better than that of single modified starch.
02 Xanthan gum and modified starch application in improving the taste of instant noodle soup base
Domestic instant noodle seasonings imitated the traditional way of cooking sauces in home kitchens in the early days, using oils and solid raw materials to produce rich aroma and rich taste through cooking, so as to satisfy consumers’ pursuit of color and aroma, but the solid content of such sauces More, the homogeneity and liquidity are poor. In Japan, which is also a big consumer of instant noodles, its instant noodle sauces mostly use fluid raw materials, aseptic filling, less solid content of sauces, uniform texture, good fluidity, and rich soup base after flushing, with a sense of broth and cooking. more adequate.
In recent years, with the upgrading of consumption, more and more consumers need more catering convenience foods. Some of the sauce packets of instant noodles have been upgraded to soup packets. How to reflect the richness and thickness of the soup base needs to be discussed. the subject.
The results of Zhang Yining’s research show that, in the seasoning soup package used in the experiment, single addition of xanthan gum or acetylated distarch adipate can not satisfy the thick feeling of the soup base after brewing, and maintain the good sauce before brewing. fluidity. In order to obtain better thickening effect and stability, xanthan gum is used in combination with modified starch. When the addition ratio is 0.2% xanthan gum, +1% acetylated distarch adipate, +1% octenyl When the sodium starch succinate was added, the viscosity of the soup base was significantly improved compared with the blank sample, and the taste preference and taste suitability were the best.
03 Different tapioca modified starch in application of fresh-keeping wet noodles
With the acceleration of modern life rhythm and the improvement of refrigeration technology, the consumption of fresh-keeping wet noodles has increased year by year, but there are problems such as high breakage rate, muddy soup, and short storage time. Studies have shown that adding a certain amount of modified starch to flour can improve the processing characteristics and quality of fresh-keeping wet noodles.
Tapioca starch is widely used in practical production because of its excellent properties. Due to the shortcomings of native starch itself, the transparency and freeze-thaw stability can be significantly improved after denaturation. The conclusions of Hu Yanling et al. in the comparative study of four types of cassava deformed starch: cassava native starch, cassava acetate starch, cassava hydroxypropyl starch, and cassava oxidized starch are as follows:
(1) The best formula for fresh-keeping wet noodles is 1g of salt, 1.5g of soybean oil, 5g of tapioca acetate starch, and 38g of water.
(2) Comparing the four different tapioca starches, the transparency of the oxidized tapioca starch paste is the best, followed by the tapioca acetate starch; the freeze-thaw stability of the tapioca acetate and the tapioca hydroxypropyl starch is the best.
(3) Four kinds of tapioca starch were applied to the fresh-keeping wet noodles for quality improvement. The cassava acetate starch had the longest cooking resistance time and the smallest breaking rate; adding 5% cassava acetate, the fresh-keeping wet noodles had the highest sensory score.
04 Application of modified starch in the production of oyster sauce
In the production process of oyster sauce, after steps such as stirring, homogenization, high temperature sterilization, etc., the state of oyster sauce becomes unstable, and water dehydration and stratification occur during storage and transportation, which affects the state of the product. Adding a thickening stabilizer can increase the viscosity of oyster sauce, keep the body relatively stable, and at the same time change the physical properties of the oyster sauce product, giving it a sticky and suitable taste.
Starch is the main component of oyster sauce thickening and stabilizer. The oyster sauce produced by domestic starch is thin, which facilitates the water layer, and has a large hidden danger of quality. The price of foreign starch is high, and the supply is in short supply. Therefore, the development of modified starch has become an urgent problem to be solved.
The research results of Wang Cong et al. showed that the waxy corn starch was mixed with corn native starch in a ratio of 4:1 to make starch slurry, and 15% vinyl acetate was added for esterification for 1 h, and then 8% of the starch was added. Propylene oxide was etherified for 1.5 hours, and 9% sodium trimetaphosphate was added for cross-linking reaction for 2 hours to obtain modified starch acetylated distarch phosphate, which was then applied to oyster sauce. On the basis of maintaining the same taste, The stability of the oyster sauce can be improved, and the production cost can be greatly reduced.
05 Application of compound modified starch in dough
Noodle products are easy to regenerate in low temperature environment, and the oil absorption is high during frying, which seriously affects their taste and nutrition and restricts the development of the industry. The application of modified starch in pasta products becomes particularly important because it helps to improve the defects of pasta products. In recent years, the research on the application of modified starch in flour products has received much attention.
The retrogradation of the compound modified starch is reduced, the viscosity is moderate, and the properties such as transparency, freeze-thaw stability, and gelatinization temperature are improved to varying degrees. Among them, the 1:2:1 group (acetate starch: carboxymethyl starch: hydroxypropyl group) Distarch phosphate) performed best and was suitable for use in dough production. Adding an appropriate amount of compound modified starch to the dough can effectively improve its water holding capacity, and the optimal amount is 5.0%.
The addition of compound modified starch can improve the texture characteristics of the dough. The shear force and toughness of the raw dough are increased, the hardness and chewiness of the cooked dough are reduced, and the elasticity is increased. When the addition amount is 7.5%, the cooked dough is The sensory score for the dough was the highest.
The research conclusions of Yue Shuhang et al. show that modified starch can well synthesize its advantages after compounding, meet production needs and improve product quality. The optimum amount of compound modified starch added in dough production is 5% to 7.5%.
06 Application of modified starch in quick-frozen food
Quick freezing is to reduce the temperature around the food, this method is widely used in the production, processing, transportation and storage of fish, meat, eggs, milk, vegetables, fruits and other perishable food.
Application of esterified starch in quick-frozen dumplings
Esterified starch has been successfully used in quick-frozen dumplings, which is determined by its own properties. It has the following characteristics: strong water absorption, good water retention; certain emulsifying properties; good film-forming properties and good low temperature stability. During the freezing of multicomponent substances, there is a critical state called the glassy state, in which many transitions take place, such as small molecules (water) changing from liquid to solid, macromolecules (proteins, starch) from viscoelastic to brittle, in which case the part curing is not permanent. Under flowing conditions, many ingredients are easy to aggregate, forming large ice crystals, destroying the product structure, and changing the taste of the product.
The addition of esterified modified starch can effectively disperse free water, reduce the surface tension of fluid substances, prevent the accumulation of fluids and the formation of large ice crystals, and safely pass the glass transition process to ensure product quality. Esterified starch has low gelatinization temperature and good film-forming performance. During the cooking process of quick-frozen dumplings, modified starch gelatinized before other starches, and its film-forming properties hindered the dissolution of other starches.
Application of pregelatinized modified starch in quick-frozen dumplings
In the traditional production of dumplings, there is an ironing process, which is easily affected by external factors (such as temperature) and human factors, resulting in fluctuations in the quality of ironed noodles. Excessive heating will make the dough sticky, and insufficient packaging will cause the dough to scatter and make it difficult to form dough. Using the characteristics of good solubility in cold water and high viscosity of pregelatinized modified starch, the blanching process is omitted, and the dough is directly adjusted by cold water, which is convenient to control the quality of the dough and ensure the uniformity of product quality.
Pregelatinized starch has good water retention and low temperature stability. During the rapid cooling process, water loss and cracks on the surface of the clear soup can be prevented. The pregelatinized starch has good viscoelasticity and structure, which improves the tensile elasticity and maintains the tensile shape.
Yang Qianna’s research results show that the freeze-thaw resistance, water retention and shape retention of cross-linked esterified double-modified starch can enable quick-frozen rice balls to keep their original properties when they are repeatedly frozen and thawed during circulation and storage, preventing juice loss and damage. fester. The shear resistance and high temperature resistance of cross-linked and esterified double modified starch can meet different process requirements, such as strong shear mixing, high temperature sterilization, etc. The cross-linked esterified double-modified starch paste is short and delicate, and has a smooth taste, which can make the dumpling filling have a good shape and taste.
Research on the application of modified starch in the production of burritos
Adding modified starch to the quick-frozen burritos can effectively improve the aging of starch in the frozen dough. The added modified starch has high viscosity, strong water absorption, and improves the gloss of the dough. It is easy to process and form, and has good water retention and freeze-thaw stability. Not easy to stick. Due to the low gelatinization temperature of modified starch, the color of the product is guaranteed to be white, which is easy for consumers to accept and buy; after freezing at -18 ℃, it can prevent the surface of the burrito from breaking, improve the water retention of the burrito, and have good shape retention and elasticity; After microwave heating, the cracking of the burrito is prevented, the surface is smooth and tough, and the taste is gluten, which ensures the appearance and inherent taste of the product, and is loved by consumers.
07 Research on the application of modified starch in baked food
In recent years, the types of baked goods have gradually increased, and people have put forward higher quality requirements for baked goods. However, native starch has performance defects, which restrict its application in food processing, especially in baked goods. The defects are mainly reflected in:
①The taste is relatively poor, mainly because the paste silk in the native starch is relatively poor, and the stability is insufficient, making it impossible to obtain a good taste.
②The stability of viscosity is relatively poor. Starch is a natural resource with differences in varieties and regions. During the production process of starch, its viscosity cannot be maintained in a relatively stable state.
③ Poor stability. In the process of food processing, there are mechanical processing links, such as processing and extrusion, and its poor stability affects the processing and production process.
④It is extremely susceptible to interference from external environmental factors, such as processing temperature conditions.
⑤ The stability of the paste is insufficient, and problems such as aging are very easy to occur.
⑥ poor solubility.
Zhang Xinqi’s research shows that modified starch is safe to use and can be widely used in baked goods or other foods. For baked goods, the starch used must maintain good characteristics. For example, the cooking characteristics are greatly improved, and the taste of baked goods can be effectively guaranteed by changing the length of the paste; modified starch also has shear resistance and freezing resistance characteristics. ; The film-forming performance is greatly improved; the hydrophilic group makes the starch have anti-aging properties and avoids the aging of the paste; and the hydrophobic group makes the starch have good emulsifying properties.
Application in Baking Jam
In the process of baking jam, try to use a food thickener with relatively good high temperature resistance, generally pectin, to avoid problems such as collapse during processing to a certain extent, but its cost is relatively high, which can be Replacing pectin with modified starch has relatively good performance and relatively low price, which can ensure a good taste of baked goods.
Application in Pihua Fruit Paste
In baked food, fruit paste is also an important product. In the process of baking food processing and production, fruit paste plays the role of smearing and decoration. For baked goods, the decoration effect is affected by the quality of fruit paste and other factors. Therefore, it is also necessary to ensure the quality of the fruit paste.
In the production of many fruit pastes, the advantages of modified starch have been gradually brought into play. For example, the cross-linked stabilized starch produced by compound modification has the advantages of good brightness, strong plasticity and good emulsification, and can form better quality starch. Fruit paste, greatly improving the quality of fruit paste. In addition, due to its good emulsifying properties, it can be combined with cream, etc., so as to present a better modification effect in baked goods.
Application in cake products
The cake must have good anti-aging and anti-oxidation properties. If ordinary wheat starch is used, because it contains a large amount of amylose, problems such as dehydration and hardening are very likely to occur during storage, which greatly reduces the quality of the cake and affects the Sale of cakes. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that the starch used in cake products has good water retention, so as to avoid problems such as dehydration during long-term storage. Therefore, a certain amount of esterified starch can be used to improve the water retention of starch, thereby improving the anti-aging ability of the cake, avoiding the deterioration of the taste due to dehydration and hardening, and ensuring that the cake can be sold smoothly.
08 Several tapioca modified starch
Study on the effect on the quality of ham sausage
In recent years, modified starch has been increasingly used as a food additive in meat products in the production of ham sausages, such as acid-treated starch, acetylated distarch phosphate, and acetate starch. Research by Wang Xiaojun et al. shows that adding starch or modified starch to ham sausage can significantly improve the quality of ham, improve the water retention of the product, make the tissue delicate, elastic, and taste good, improve the freeze-thaw stability of the product, and further improve the shelf life of the product. period, improve yield and reduce costs. The addition of cassava acetylated distarch phosphate is more excellent in improving product quality than other cassava raw material modified starch.
09 Combination of modified starch and colloid
Study on the effect of application on the quality of coated flour
The crispness of fried food is mainly determined by the crispy taste after the surface is coated with flour and fried, and the filling is required to be tender and juicy, and the skin is crisp, that is, the internal moisture content is high, and the skin moisture content is low and not hard. The traditionally used bread flour is a single flour as the main raw material, but because the flour absorbs a large amount of oil during frying, and the shelf life is not long, the product will soften after being placed for a long time, which will reduce the taste of the product.
The addition of modified starch to the coating powder can greatly improve the appearance, color and taste of the product, and increase the output rate of the product. Among them, the modified starch is added to the sizing powder, and cold water can be used to make pulp, and it can also increase the proportion of water to powder when the slurry is prepared, increase the stability and fluidity of the slurry, and enhance the tenderness and juice retention of the product. The amount of thickener used.
Modified starch is added to the pre-mixed powder, which can increase the adhesion between the material and the coating, making it difficult to peel off, and can also enhance water retention. The addition of modified starch to the coating powder can make the product have attractive color and good taste.
On the basis of studying the main ingredients of fried flour, Liu Zhenyu et al. obtained a compound modifier that can significantly improve the quality of fried food by adding a certain amount of modified starch and compound colloid. The formula is 80% The flour and corn starch (the ratio of the two is 8:2, the addition of 20% tapioca hydroxypropyl starch, the addition of 0.3% of konjac flour, gelatin, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose are 1 : 1: 1), the composite coating powder is convenient to use and has stable quality; the color and taste of the food produced by using the composite coating powder are well improved.